Steel Mills and Tommy Guns: Gary, Indiana and the Prohibition Era

machine gun

Gary, Indiana doesn’t quickly come to mind when one thinks of the Prohibition Era in the Midwest. Chicago, Al Capone and the St. Valentine’s Day Massacre are more obvious choices. I’ve heard stories that Gary’s close proximity to Chicago gave those gangsters a place to hide out; that there were tunnels connecting the two cities for ease of escape. So when I decided that I wanted to write a Prohibition Era story set in Gary, Indiana, I thought I’d have to make my imagination work overtime. That I’d have to find some tenuous connection between the steel mill and bootlegging to make it somewhat interesting.

That wasn’t the case.

Research is a beautiful thing. I’ve always embraced the lesson that setting is a writer’s best friend, especially if there is a historical element to it. While digging into Gary’s Prohibition past, I learned that the city had its own share of issues with the Volstead Act. There was a Little Italy section and its own Black Hand. I learned that there were bookies, bootleggers, brothels, speakeasies and corrupt public figures who ran the rackets better than the gangsters they were supposed to prosecute. James Lane’s City of the Century led me to real-life gangster Gasperi (or Gaspari) Monti who ruled the city’s Little Italy section until his violent death in 1923.

3080059621_31d213b0dc_oAccording to local newspaper reports, Monti is best known as the government’s star witness in a corruption case against more than sixty judges, prosecutors, policemen, and even then-Gary mayor Roswell Johnson, all for violating Prohibition laws. At the time, the Gary Police Department had a special enforcement arm called the Sponge Squad that arrested bootleggers, and then would sell liquor confiscated in the arrests to line their pockets and the pockets of everyone else up the law enforcement chain in Lake County. Monti made a deal with federal prosecutors to expose the corruption, but was gunned down in broad daylight by two unknown assailants on March 13, 1923, just days before he was scheduled to testify.

Monti was no stranger to violence and attempts on his life. In 1922, he’d been shot through the mouth by a man who’d shot him a year prior. He owned and operated the Black and Tan Club in the 1700 block of Adams Street where shooting deaths were commonplace. Even Monti’s wife, Mary, was into the rackets. After her husband was killed, police found illegal liquor and several pounds of explosives in her home.

Gary, Indiana’s past never ceases to amaze me.  The further I go back in time, the more fodder I find for fiction. I imagine there are several genres I can squeeze out of the life of Gasperi Monti.

About Michelle McGill-Vargas

I hail from Gary, Indiana where I enjoy writing historical fiction, flash fiction, and short stories. My writings have appeared in "Lutheran Witness", "Splickety Magazine", "The Copperfield Review", "Typehouse Literary Magazine," and was a contributing writer to Concordia Publishing House's "Portals of Prayer" (October 2016). I've served as vice-president of the Indiana Writers' Consortium and am currently a board member of Midwest Writers. I am currently represented by Melissa Danaczko of Stuart Krichevsky Literary Agency, Inc. I pay the bills as a teacher of the deaf/hard of hearing. Visit my blog at
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11 Responses to Steel Mills and Tommy Guns: Gary, Indiana and the Prohibition Era

  1. Helen M. Brandt says:

    Michelle, That article is so interesting! Can hardly wait to hear what you discover next! Smile

  2. James says:

    Hi Michelle,

    Are there any in depth articles or books on Gaspari Monti or the Gary, IN early black hand?

  3. Frank Wright says:

    Hi,Michelle McGill-Vargas my name is Frank wright and I’m trying to locate a old article from the 70’s.My grandparents lived on taft st.and we’re features in a article .I really need your help

    • Thanks for reaching out. You’d have to give me more information about the article. If you’re in the NWI area, you might be able to find information at the Calumet Archives at IUN. Or maybe try a keyword search for the topic.

  4. Teresa Guzman says:

    Would you be interested in reaching out to the Gary Cultural and Historical Commission? This is a newly formed commission. Please contact me. Thank you

    • I would be interested in reaching out. I love researching Gary History! Please send me contact information. Thanks!

      • Teresa Guzman says:

        I would like to send you an agenda and some upcoming projects–is this a good way to get it to you? You can contact Naomi Millender at or Councilwoman Rebecca These are the two leads of 2 separate but similar organizations in the City of Gary . Possible you could be on the agenda of one or both meetings to discuss your forte and possible fit. Thanks for the guick reply.

      • Yes. Please send me the agenda of the meetings and any upcoming projects. While I am familiar with the Gary Historical Society, I am not familiar with what Councilwoman Wyatt is doing. Any information would be helpful. You can send it directly to

      • Teresa Guzman says:

        I have spoken with Ms Naomi Millender. She is the acting chair of the Gary Historical and Cultural Commission. Please contact her at I’m very sure we can work some interesting things out. Thank you

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